If Combustion Engines Have A Future, What Is It?
Comparing Future Combustion Technologies: HCCI vs PCCI vs RCCI
Subscribe for new videos every Wednesday! - goo.gl/VZstk7
Recommended Books \u0026 Car Products - amzn.to/2BrekJm
EE Shirts! - bit.ly/2BHsiuo

Spark-ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI) engines have been around for a long time, and they each have their unique problems and challenges. If we want more efficient engines, with cleaner emissions, we're going to need improved technologies and methods. Low temperature combustion promises greater efficiency with better emissions. Recent examples include homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI), premixed charged compression ignition (PCCI), and reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI). How do these combustion techniques work, and how do they improve efficiency and emissions? Check out the video for all the details!

Related Videos:
How HCCI Works - fibill.info/nick/videot/tYaPi3fHkpFxfJk
How Mazda's SPCCI Works - fibill.info/nick/videot/336LqaDaY4lnmqE
How RCCI Works - fibill.info/nick/videot/1nOqZ5PNgX-inIs

Studies Referenced:
2018 Study - doi.org/10.1016/j.applthermal...
2020 Study - doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2019.1...

Engineering Explained is a participant in the Amazon Influencer Program.

Don't forget to check out my other pages below!
Facebook: facebook.com/engineeringex...
Official Website: www.howdoesacarwork.com
Twitter: twitter.com/jasonfenske13
Instagram: instagram.com/engineeringe...
Car Throttle: www.carthrottle.com/user/engi...
Amazon: www.amazon.com/shop/engineeri...
EE Extra: fibill.info/online/srY...


  • Ed Walker
    Ed Walker

    Great video.This guy is common sense. What he says reflects what is reality - a sensible future belongs to everything, gas,diesel, electrics, hybrids, alternative fuel engines etc..(like many people,researchers and companies have said...)

  • John Yates
    John Yates

    So if your idling at a stop put your car in neutral your engine will thank you

  • JP dJ
    JP dJ

    CI - replace the single injection nozzle by, say, 10 and each blob of fuel coming in, is 1/10th with exponentially larger surface (surface relates to the 2nd power of blob radius and volume with the 3rd power, so surface to volume ratio improves a lot). And, if we want to slow down global heating, then we need more particulate matter in the atmosphere, like we had in the older days.

  • Jazz Cat
    Jazz Cat

    I dont see that it would matter. You are talking about collector cars or supercars etc and there will be so few of them that it would not matter.

  • Yunus İmamoğlu
    Yunus İmamoğlu

    Can you share the name of the articles which involve the experiments?

  • Aamir Bhatti
    Aamir Bhatti

    There is No future of ICE Vehicles. Future is Electric Vehicles.

  • Christopher Abramor
    Christopher Abramor

    Well with Euro5 diesels we already have to fill two tanks (Diesel plus AdBlue). So if it is more efficient I don't see that as stopping us from using RCCI in trucks. More so if you take into account the already in use Diesel-Gas systems to reduce costs by using a mix of Diesel and CNG.

  • Nicolas Lorenzo
    Nicolas Lorenzo

    Problem - global warming Apparent solution - make everything electric REAL true 💯 solution - have manufacturers have a range of EVs for all the non petrolhead humans, industry, etc...and a performance range for the petrol heads running on efuel

  • Jay Bee
    Jay Bee

    the future of combustion is: EXTERNAL combustion & a sterling heat engine and / or- achates opposed 2 stroke engine, primarily military use. it's not about the fact that it's an ice engine- the problem is big oil jacking with the price. perhaps more B100 and pure ethanol? an excellent choice over petrol.

  • John Savage
    John Savage

    GM shelved a motor in the 1980's that got 53 miles per gallon.

  • Anne N. Nimity
    Anne N. Nimity

    The future of ICE will be towing the BEVs and/or picking up the hitchhikers, more so in cold climates. Then when the eco friendly BEVs single handedly cool off the planet and the glaciers return to TX. there will be an increase in demand for ICE vehicles.

  • Pulseczar1

    The video turned out to be about something pretty different from the title.

  • Richard

    Now you have to do a video on Alfadan and update this.

  • papparocket

    The future of IC engines is as very small single operating condition sustainer engine in conjunction with battery electric drivetrains. It would be sort of like the Chevy Volt, but different. The sustainer engine is sized only to meet the average power required by the vehicle. For example the Tesla Model 3 consumes about 234 Wh/mile cruising on the freeway at 70 mph. The power required is only 16 kW or 22 hp. Given the losses in the generator and rectifier of around 10%, the engine would need to output around 25 hp. The sustainer engine is only connected to a generator and its only job is to run at a constant power and make electricity. The battery electric drivetrain is what actually drives the vehicle and is completely capable of driving the vehicle for some reasonable distance, say 70-100 miles, with just battery power. But for longer trips the sustainer engine starts when the batteries state of charge is down around the midpoint. When the engine is running it is supplying all or nearly all of the power required for steady cruising. The batteries will then only have to make up the difference in power supplied by the sustainer and the power required by the vehicle during acceleration and climbing hills. The batteries then absorb all of the engine power as well as regen energy from the motors when braking or going downhill. So while not a zero CO2 at the vehicle level such a hybrid would cut their CO2 emission by 90%-95%. This type of system will work even better for larger vehicles like the F-150 than a 100% battery electric (sorry Ford, but I think you screwed up with the Lighting). But even with energy consumption around 530 Wh/mile in combined driving and maybe around 650 Wh/mile if pulling a trailer or carrying a large load on the freeway, the power requirement at 65 mph is only 57 hp, requiring a 64 hp sustainer engine. And my apologies to Elon Musk, but a 100% battery powered semi makes zero sense. Much better would be to use this type of battery hybrid system. Even for these huge vehicles where even the most modern and aerodynamic trucks only get about 8-9 mpg the average power at 65 mph can be meet with a 140 hp sustainer engine. My calculations show that with a sustainer engine that highly optimized for its single operating level, the fuel efficiency of these monsters of the road could come close to doubling. It would still have all of the advantage of a battery electric truck, like brakes that don't wear out or fade because the drive motors are doing most of the braking and putting the energy back into the batteries. That also means no hard downshifting to use engine braking to spare the brakes and in the process irritating everybody within a 1/2 mile radius. If the sustainer engine used a green fuel produced from renewable resources rather than fossil fuels, even the miles driven with the engine running might produce a net zero CO2. There are many efforts to make green fuels, but the most promising I have see is a process that can use renewable energy sources along with an electrically charged catalyst that takes in CO2 and H2 and directly make methane and methanol. These are then is combine in a second process to make butanol. Butanol has some very attractive features. It has nearly identical volumetric and gravimetric energy density as gasoline. In fact can be burned at 100% in a gasoline spark ignition engine with little or modification. But unlike gasoline it has a much lower vapor pressure and flash temperature, and so is much safer than gasoline. And unlike ethanol, it will not absorb water from the air and so won't degrade if allowed to sit in the fuel tank for potentially months. So I think that there is a real future for IC engines, but only as a supporting role in a battery centered electric vehicle.

  • Retro Man
    Retro Man

    Combustion engines do you have a future it will always have a future in my garage I’m never going EV

  • Michał Kuklewski
    Michał Kuklewski

    Really like your videos, but I have one question - Could you tell why are you not providing any "real" values? Especially when speaking about efficiency of those engines?

  • Mark Trued
    Mark Trued

    At 15:15, sums it up neatly. You can jump through all the technical hoops, the mechanical complexity and the associated service costs and failure rates, all to achieve half the efficiency of an EV.

  • benfidar

    Can you answer the question of whether ICE cars are on the way out and EVs on the way in because teh development potential of the ICE engine is getting toward the end, while the potential of EVs, better motors, new battery technology is simply getting greater? If that is not true, and ICE still has efficiencies on the horizon or if battery technology stalls, I would expect them to coexist for some time, maybe a very long time.

  • George PPS
    George PPS

    Can you make a video about Porsche’s eFuel?

  • Antonio Maglione
    Antonio Maglione

    ICE engines have a future because of the extreme energy density of the petrol fuel. Miniature powerful vehicles, can't be electric for another century maybe. Just like a megawatt radio transmitter needs to be manufactured by using vacuum tubes.

  • mdesm2005

    There's no evidence that man made CO2 has any impact on "global warming" or "climate change" or "what ever expression the central planners will come up next". So stop worrying about CO2. Besides, CO2 is plant food. It's not a poison. You exhale 4000ppm.

  • Jintaro Kensei
    Jintaro Kensei

    I will always drive manual. I don't care if I'm running on vodka or uranium.

  • tthams73

    The internal combustion engine isn’t going anywhere! Considering at current consumption rates, there’s only 50 years of lithium remaining on earth. No lithium! No Electric vehicles. Maybe that’s why Elon is building 🚀

  • Neel Shah
    Neel Shah

    what type of fuel is used by HCCI?

  • Bruce Lindsley
    Bruce Lindsley

    Continuous Combustion Engine. Has a bright future. Better materials leading to higher I. T. T.'s, just keeps getting better every five years it seems. I'd love to hear them everywhere!

  • Alex Hostetter
    Alex Hostetter

    This is why hydrogen is a superior alternative.

  • Zoltán Juhász
    Zoltán Juhász

    1:26 Soviet anthem intensifies

  • craigcarter400

    The RCCI would make it to so you pump both diesel and gas into the car. I can see more than a few people put diesel in the gas side and gas in the diesel side 🤦‍♂️

  • Jon H
    Jon H

    I do appreciate you videos, and understand fully the educational value as they are (and they are very informative)...and here comes the inevitable "but"...but, there is a LOT more to power/fuel efficiency than just controlling ignition timing that I think is equally valuable to the conversation. Combustion rate is critical as well. Yes, that is all wrapped up in the injection timing/quantity and placement (PI vs DI) that is inclusive in "fuel/air mixture" that was assumed in the explanations, but its a disservice to the process to simplify it so. How the mixture methods/rates behave during compression/ignition says a lot about WHY there is such a discrepancy between the efficiencies of different strategies. In other words, at the level of understanding that you present the majority of the video (which is very well done), "knock is bad" just isn't good enough. I'm really not trying to knock your video...it is very well done, and informative...I'm just saying there was a real missed opportunity to expand just a little more on what is really different about the injection strategies and why some, more than others, are more susceptible to knock (in some cases, prohibitively so)

  • RostRazzor

    I just got vibed about M1 Abrams ATG-1500 turbine engine and how efficient in torgue it is to accelerate 70 ton tank up to speed on cross-country roads like a glove))))) Only thing it's big fuel consumption,cause it's basically heli engine fit in a tank, and it's big filters,that making back of the tank so ....squared and big))))

  • OldJoe C
    OldJoe C

    One fundamental is being missed here. The higher & lower efficiencies being cited all apply when the engine is a maximum efficiency, which only occurs at a pretty high power output, around the maximum torque point, or maybe 75-80% of maximum power. That's great if your application can run the engine at that power level all the time. However, any of these engine design are awful (from a pure efficiency standpoint) for powering personal vehicles, because the average power needed is far, far below that maximum efficiency point. e.g. The power required to cruise at a steady 40MPH on a city street is only 10-12 HP. Using a 200-HP engine to generate 12 HP is akin to using a 40-pound snow shovel to move 10 pounds of snow at each stroke. Just as you'd waste most of your muscle power lifting the heavy shovel to move a small load, you waste most of your fuel budget spinning a big engine to do a small job.

  • Donald Predmore Jr
    Donald Predmore Jr

    Could you do a video on synthetic fuel I heard porsche is working on could be the thing that saves combustion style cars

  • Camcar10

    Synthetic fuel is the future of the ICE.

  • Dave Froman
    Dave Froman

    Museums. And probably closed course driving tracks. Its only a matter of time before we start telling people they cannot drive anymore.

  • Sterling Parkway
    Sterling Parkway

    How about Natural Gas fueled engines? Can you give us your opinion on that, if you have a moment.

  • Warren Slater
    Warren Slater

    always so interesting - and this one is EXTRA interesting

  • aneesh89

    Synthetic fuels

  • DeathDoors

    I can't figure out if he's 22 or 45.

  • Lorrie Carrel
    Lorrie Carrel

    I have learned so so much from your content,thank you Jason

  • Lorrie Carrel
    Lorrie Carrel

    I'd give you two thumbs up if I could

  • Kourosh Ghadamkheir
    Kourosh Ghadamkheir

    what are the fuels uses in HCCI engines? because it must ignite automatically, it should be highly reactive... so can it be concluded that ab HCCI is a Conventional Diesel engine that is port-injected and not Direct-injected?

  • HedgeHodge

    If only we didn’t have have climate alarmist pushing world governments to pass regulations that kill the combustion engine cars.

  • MDF 2 MDF 2
    MDF 2 MDF 2

    RCCI........two fuel tanks required for Granny Doris to misfuel....

  • Éliphas Lévi
    Éliphas Lévi

    It'd be interesting if they could use some kind of oxygen enriched fuel that would eliminate the need to use outside air in the combustion process. It has already been proven that higher O2 concentrations increase the efficiency of the DI diesel combustion process.

  • Billie Young
    Billie Young

    biggest issue is they cost 40 percent less than electric vehicles...so,they arent going away ever.

  • Ichigo 15
    Ichigo 15


  • Wes Treen
    Wes Treen

    Good Vid Jason, .... So what about something SI, like the Eco-boost engines ?

  • Bruce

    No old style gas engines here - 2 EVs - Tesla Model S & a Mini Electric. ----- No more climate damaging fossil fuel engines.

  • MrScrewU

    I'm like number 13000 :D

  • Glasspack40

    Currently, Porsche and other Manufacturers are creating Synthetic Fuels . For Internal Combustion Engines which, Combustion Engines will be around longer.

  • roggenbif

    Just do a double nozzle filler and find a way to get out the left over fuel somewhere and than we maybe can get somewhere

  • Mohamed Abdinur
    Mohamed Abdinur

    RCCI is the next best compromise. But I think the magic is already premixed fuels at the pump. The f1 turbo era of the 80s were running special blend of racing fuel that had toluene, benzene, diesel, and regular gas. I think it was the BMW team I read an article on where they said gas mileage increased. They were still spark driven but I think heat charging through a controlled heat exchange could prime the primary fuel injection just as it mixed with dense cool air. The secondary fuel is then added in the cylinder and is ready for sparkless ignition via compression. But the problem is cold starts... not sure how can that be done reliably before the primary intake fuel injector is heat primed... maybe special heat plugged injectors?

  • Angel Arch
    Angel Arch

    For the future of fuel combustion engines... why not just burn gasoline to create electricity in a small efficient turbine? No pistons and complex timing required.

  • Edgar Nanne
    Edgar Nanne

    Jason, great video as always. Would love you to explain 6-stroke engines. Hydrocarbon-steam hybrids and their limitations.

  • Cameron James
    Cameron James

    I’d love to see combustion engines around as long; they’re just more fun to work on and drive

  • Marian Chambers
    Marian Chambers

    The deserted eight undoubtedly deserve because indonesia multivariately match via a inconclusive spaghetti. cooing, drab letter

  • sleepwalkerbg1

    Simple , future of ICE (Internal combustion engine) is working in stationary condition , on sweet spot of power/torque while turning high-efficiency alternator for charging EV's :)Just like diesel locomotive.. Of course , that will also be thing of the past when we learn to harvest energy of the sun efficiently !

  • Keith Wollenberg
    Keith Wollenberg

    Just so the manufacturers know, I would enthusicastically embrace buying two different fuels to reap the benefits of an RCCI engine.

  • Aaron Schwarz
    Aaron Schwarz

    ICE going to be a range extender in future plug in hybrid electric vehicles & range extended electric vehicles //

  • wwlb

    Automobile engines do not seem to have future for now. Recently, Audi said they will no longer develop new IC engines, due to Eurocomission pushing on Euro-7 but rather try to improve existing ones - and soon we will see many of this. However, internal combustion engines have future in airplanes - to the point where we can call it a second birth. Search for Celera 500L - a future of civil aviation. Already flying 460mph (Some civil jets fly hardly more!). Also, ships. Huge diesels are not going anywhere.

  • Drunken Hamster
    Drunken Hamster

    What about a PCCI with diesel?


    I hate elon musk for tesla🤬🤬

  • Aman Panesar
    Aman Panesar

    15:12 After all of this stuff about ICE engines Just listen to the last bit , Sums it up very well . Buy a Tesla . And more torque also and that from zero rpm

  • Allen Loser
    Allen Loser

    Organic contaminants and sulfur in fuel are the primary cause of soot. Eliminate contaminants to eliminate soot. Synthetic fuels made from CO2 and water have no contaminants.

  • Allen Loser
    Allen Loser

    The reciprocating piston Internal Combustion Engine will continue to be used until it is displaced by another motive force which better meets consumers' needs. All of the engines discussed are reciprocating piston internal combustion engines. No External Combustion Engines or engines using rotary, not reciprocating, motion are discussed.

  • Blake Ivy
    Blake Ivy

    Hardly an examination on the future of ICE.

  • Mark Estrada
    Mark Estrada

    If you use Hemp oil, you lose the emissions.

  • Paulo Duarte
    Paulo Duarte

    LPG and Biogas... ;) It's the future... for combustion engines... ;)

  • Luke Starkenburg
    Luke Starkenburg

    Thanks for including the little bit about electric cars and their efficiency. Can you make a video more in depth about that?

  • bbogdanmircea

    I just read somewhere that Audi stopped any research on combustion engines, so yeah ... they will switch to electric for the developed world and keep selling the actual technology to the rest of the world.

  • ShadowOps Airman1
    ShadowOps Airman1

    Engines that work in cold and dont require expensive motors/batteries that fail in cold.

  • Albrecht Schall
    Albrecht Schall

    Hi, wouldn’t it be fair when you compare efficiencies between combustion engines and electric engines that you take the total efficiency - on the electric side especially from generation to use? Kind regards from Germany Hui Buh

  • david Phillips
    david Phillips

    RCCI is about a hundred years old and very easy to implement, diesel guys have been doing it just about since diesels were invented simply by fogging some propane into the intake manifold on their diesel engines.

  • n

    My guess: ultra lean hcci turbocharged free-piston engines. Basically a high efficiency combustion-based eletric generator. Timing isn't as much of a issue there because of the constant load and you can take out the whole unit and put a battery there once it becomes more viable because those engines are small and made with modularity in mind (at least that's the Toyota's approach).

  • John Manno
    John Manno

    Excellent video! Very well and clearly explained! Bravo

  • Gael Gauth
    Gael Gauth

    I would put 2 fuels in my car.

  • Honest Commenter
    Honest Commenter

    Short answer, no they don't.

  • Steve Hill
    Steve Hill

    I have a thought/question which is, at the moment it is said that fuel cells (FC's) run on hydrogen or methane gas (with the use of catalysts), why can't hydrocarbon fuels be gasified (most hydrogen produced at the moment is from steam reforming natural gas and it is said this is a large industrial process, but in the past engines were made to run on TVO (tractor vaporising oil) where the fuel was heated (usually by the exhaust) to make it vaporise, I know it's not the same but it should be possible to gasify gasoline and/or diesel) and treated/catalysed for use in a fuel cell to power a vehicle. If it could be made to work wouldn't that have the advantages of each of the 3 main competing technologies (EV's, FC's, ICE) whilst at the same time managing to overcome the problems associated with each of the technologies (as I see it the problem with ICE is not the hydrocarbon fuel but the combustion process), so with the above in mind my answer to your question would be, the ICE is dead --- long live the hydrocarbon fuel cell.

  • Cakeskull

    Hydrogen/HHO supplemented diesel would fit into the RCCI category if I'm not mistaken? That combination seems to be gaining popularity for generators and even some haulage applications.

  • Stormie Wutzke
    Stormie Wutzke

    If you still read this I would be really interested in knowing if there are any studies about water injection.

  • D Red
    D Red

    Petroleum will never go away! Neither will combustion engines, at least not until they get rid of batteries! With batteries, an electric car is far worse for the environment, not to mention people really dont realize what is actually charging their car comes from the same energy, in one way or another, that fuels my car! You can thank Rockefeller for all the misinformation on natural oil!

  • Marcus Cook
    Marcus Cook

    If the Texas winter storm power demand spike is any indication, we still aren't close to fully electric cars taking over. Can you imagine the same inadequate power grid saddled with millions upon millions of massive fast chargers?

  • Pro Stock owner
    Pro Stock owner

    The oil industry runs the world.

  • edyartzi

    There’s actually a demand for that kind of engine in LPG conversion of diesel engines. The LPG is a high octane fuel that can be port injected. The engine needs to inject some amount of diesel to start the ignition.

  • Marco Scherillo
    Marco Scherillo

    parla troppo veloce

  • perf b
    perf b

    Combustion engines now seem like Rube Goldberg contraptions compared to electric motors. EV Horsepower to weight advantage, and efficiency due to not having to lose energy with reciprocating losses and friction losses. I always wondered how much energy is lost accelerating/decelerating the pistons vs engine friction losses, i.e. which is greater and what fraction of energy is lost?

  • Paradox

    if the electrical powered system is better than ICE and hydro carbon fuels - why do humans breath oxygen and exhale CO2? isn't it more efficient for us to throw lightning bolts like Zeus?

  • Paradox

    @Engineering Explained - you were touting electric cars being efficient than ICE, can you prove it? suppose we have 1 hectare of land and 1 year of time. we can either a) use it to grow crops and turn into ethanol to power an ICE car. or b) cover the land with solar panels to generate AC power, which then coverts to DC to charge an EV. finally, we compare the ICE car and the EV car, which car will drive a longer distance, based on that 1 hectare-land-year unit? in both cases, the original source of energy is sunlight. so this comparison fairly compares whether ICE or EV makes the most efficient use of sunlight. (difficult to compare when using hydro / nuclear)

  • Christopher

    achates power made some massive improvement's but seems they aren't working much in the civilian world. currently they are working on powerplants for military equipment. they had an F150 getting almost 40mpg with their 2 stroke engine

  • stau ffap
    stau ffap

    Wow, it's almost like you don't know anything about global warming and climate science. You do realise that we need to get to pretty much zero combustion of fossil fuels, do you? You can't talk about the future of combustion engines without mentioning man-made global warming and its implications. So your video misses the whole point. What you would have to discuss is what will a CO2 neutral energy grid look like and is there a place for combustion engines? This means that the more important thing is the fuel. It's almost all about discussing the fuel. So what options do we have? -Hydgrogen made form electrolysis of water (inefficient uses about 5 times more energy per distance compared to EV) -Liquid e-fuels, same problem in combination with an ICE, but even less efficient than hydrogen -Biofuels, here we often have EROI problems, the inefficient ICE in combination with the fuel makes it an energy sink Conclusion: There's likely no future for the internal combustion engine, except for very rich people and maybe in some exotic niches. Again the goal is CO2 neutrality and not just less CO2 - that's not enough. You don't seem to get that.

    • stau ffap
      stau ffap

      @S King Why? The average car owner drives just 29 miles per day. 95 percent of all trips are below 50 miles long. Every electric car can do that. I have a cheap electric car (the cheapest new car you can get) and in the summer i can easily get a 300km range. In the winter about 260km range. A Tesla has about a 500km range and you can do 1000km in 10 hours if you know what you're doing. The problem in most cases aren't electric cars, but that people don't know how to use them and what they can do. And often they don't even know how long their usual trips are. I recommend Bjorn Nyland's channel if you want to learn what an electric car can do. Also learn about the consumption for different speeds. This makes a huge difference in terms of range.

    • S King
      S King

      Biofuels may be a good measure toward carbon neutrality for ICE vehicles until battery tech catches up with consumer needs.

  • Георги Георгев
    Георги Георгев

    Here in Bulgaria we put a LPG sistem on a disel engine this is something like RCCI you put the LPG (or CNG)in the intake and the result is that you have a good increase of power and a little economy

  • Aaditya Pratap Singh
    Aaditya Pratap Singh

    Why can't gasoline/petrol be used in case of diesel in compression ignition engines, though? Is it because of knock and air-fuel mixture preignition-related issues, along with timing? Let's leave out the lubricating properties of diesel for the fuel pump, injectors and other parts that depend on the fuel itself for getting lubricated while running.

  • oliver24x

    We better do something, the earth warmed faster in 2020 than normal because of less particle pollution from planes, cars and more

    • S King
      S King

      @oliver24x - You are 100% correct. Additionally, aviation and shipping are two transportation sectors which won’t be adequately served by electric power for years to come. CO2-neutral fuels will be able to power these energy-hungry industries until an adequate AND cost-effective alternative is developed.

    • oliver24x

      @S King We could potentially fix this though by making CO2 neutral fuels with CO2. It requires energy but if the energy used for this process is CO2 neutral too, net CO2 pollution would be 0. I think this would be important for a long time, we ain't getting all gas cars of the road anytime soon. CO2 capture-to-liquid fuels is realistic and has been demonstrated to actually work, but as with other green alternatives it requires incentives.

    • S King
      S King

      @oliver24x - What I laughed about is that you said that “because of LESS [particle] pollution”, the earth warmed faster in 2020. Without further explanation, a rational inferral would be that “pollution from planes, cars and more” isn’t the cause of global warming ...

    • oliver24x

      @S King You don't believe in global warming or that the earth warmed faster? Either way you should probably do a little searching around.

    • S King
      S King

      LOLOLOL ...

  • D Wall
    D Wall

    I like the opposed piston design. How does it stack up against these options wrt emissions?

  • twowheeler1000

    Have you ever done a video on multiair tech? It's very interesting.

  • R Rdm
    R Rdm

    Dude, awesome information - however, please get out of the bathroom when doing the Audio! Put a towel over your head, and do a take, then listen to how much better it sounds - no slapback echo from dreaded head-in-toilet-bowl sounding audio. Thanks much

  • Joe Leonard
    Joe Leonard

    What about carbon-neutral fuel? I feel like this is the most promising by a mile.

    • 4nN3xi0Ng3r

      The problem there is the efficency. You use quite a lot of energy to produce the carbon-neutral fuel and burn it again with ~40% efficency.

  • Jerry Wielo
    Jerry Wielo

    diesel fuel has 30% more energy than regular gasoline/petrol!

  • 12v

    The future is wood gas engines. Prove me wrong.

  • Jindong Zhang
    Jindong Zhang

    Perfect explaining combustion engine work.